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New Brunswick's Clean Air Act - Glossary
- C -
Calcination of Limestone
The heating of limestone in a kiln to cause the reaction of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide. Also see Calcium Oxide (CaO).
Calcined Lime, Calcined Lime Pebbles
Products that have been formed from the heating of limestone in a kiln to cause the reaction of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide. Also see Calcium Oxide.
Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)
A common mineral, widely distributed as the main constituent of chalk and limestone. It is heated to form calcium oxide or calcined lime or calcined lime pebbles.
Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)
Agricultural lime used to raise the soil pH. It is also used in the purification of sugar, glass production and in the manufacture of plasters and mortars. It is produced by the action of water on calcium oxide.
Calcium Oxide (CaO)
A greyish-white powder which is obtained by heating (calcining) limestone. It is a chemical of very wide industrial use, having a high affinity for water to give calcium hydroxide. It is used in metallurgy, paper manufacture, petroleum processing and the food industries. Also known as quicklime.
Calculation of Administrative Penalty
A fine, imposed by the Coordinator of Administrative Penalties, which is calculated on the basis of each day or part of a day during which the offence continues. Also see Administrative Penalty.
Carriage of an Action (n)
With respect to commencing a carriage of action, it means the ability to bear charges against an alleged polluter.
Carriage of an Action (v)
With respect to having carriage of action, it means the Minister may take the necessary steps to assume the legal costs or carriage of the action.
With respect to an ambient air quality or continuous emission monitoring device or equipment, means that before the device is used, it must be working within prescribed limits or degree of accuracy to ensure the reliability of the results or information collected from the device. Consists of subjecting the monitor to several gases of known concentration and adjusting the data output accordingly.
Canadian Environmental Protection Service (CEPS)
See Environmental Protection Service.
The ratio of the average power load on a machine or equipment for a given period of time to the capacity rating of the machine or equipment.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
A colourless, odourless, gas produced mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide has been considered by some scientists to be an air contaminant and plays a predominant role in Global Warming.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
A colourless, odourless and tasteless air contaminant that is emitted to the atmosphere from a number of sources, which include but are not limited to, motor vehicles, fossil fuel burning industries, home heating systems, and open burning of refuse. The New Brunswick Regulation 97-133 filed under the Clean Air Act regulates a maximum permissible ground level concentration in micrograms per cubic metre of 35,000 for and average period of 1 hour.
Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)
A colourless non-flammable toxic liquid that has an odour resembling that of chloroform. It is used as a solvent in laboratories and as a feedstock chemical for production of refigerants.
A cancer producing substance. In many cases the carcinogen does not cause concern directly, but initiates a series of reactions whose end result, or one of whose products, triggers the aberrant cell behaviour, which develops into cancer.
A substance that initiates or changes the rate of chemical reaction, but is not consumed or changed by the reaction. Catalysts are usually employed to accelerate reactions (positive catalysts), but retarding (negative) catalysts are also used.
The product gases exiting a catalyst bed within a catalytic reactor.
Caustic Soda (NaOH).
Sometimes referred to as sodium hydroxide, is produced concurrently with chlorine from the electrolysis of salt dissolved in water (Chlor-Alkali Mercury Process). The caustic soda is generally used as a scrubbing medium to treat a chlorine laden air waste stream. Also see Caustic Soda Scrubber.
Caustic Soda Scrubber.
A device used for the removal, or washing out of fugitive air emissions of chlorine in specific industrial applications, which may include, but are not limited to, the Chlor-Alkali Mercury Process, and the Pulp and Paper Bleaching process.
See Continuous Emission Monitoring.
A continuous emission monitoring system, which refers to the entire system completing the emission monitoring activities.
A rotating device for separating items of various masses by inducing gravitational forces/actions through the use of high rotational velocities. Cyclones are one example of a centrifugal system.
Certificate of Approval.
A person who holds a certificate issued by the Minister under paragraph 21(1) (b) of the Ozone Depleting Substances Regulation.
CFM or Cubic Feet per Minute.
Is a measure of the volume of a fluid that passes a specific point per minute. This measure can be expressed in standard or actual CFM.
A portable pressurised container with a graduated scale that is used or intended to be used for the temporary storage of ozone depleting substances during the recharging or servicing of unitary equipment with an ozone depleting substance.
Chlor-Alkali Mercury Release Regulations.
The Chlor-Alkali Mercury Release Regulation - Canadian Environmental Protection Act. It limits emissions of mercury and references testing methods to be used for those contaminants associated with the Chlor-Alkali Mercury process.
Are facilities that manufacture chlorine and caustic soda by the electrolysis of salt dissolved in water in either a diaphragm cell or a mercury cell.
Chlorate - salts containing the chlorate ion, as well as hypochlorite, chlorite and perchlorate.
A group of solvents derived from hydrochloric acid used during the manufacture of a huge variety of everyday products (e.g. plastic food wrap).
A gas, heavier than air, which combines with water to produce hydrochloric acid (HCI) and hypochlorite (see Chlorates). It is chiefly used as a bleaching agent in the Pulp and Paper Industry and as a disinfectant in Water Treatment. It occurs naturally as halite (common salt), as chlorides of other metals and is manufactured almost entirely by the electrolysis of brine.
A colourless gas manufactured industrially for use as a refrigerant. It is believed to be the major contributor of the degradation of the ozone layer. The use of chlorofluorocarbons is prohibited as per the Ozone Depleting Substance Regulation.
A simple organic chlorine compound used as a solvent in the plastics, rubber and resin industries, as well as an industrial solvent and raw material.
A colourless gas similar to a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) manufactured industrially for use as a refrigerant and as a local anaesthetic. It is also produced naturally by certain fungi.
A hard, grayish, metallic element that occurs as chrome-iron ore and is used in the manufacture of stainless steel and to a lesser extent, in chromium plating. Chromium can be expressed as total chromium, or as hexavalent chromium, its most toxic form.
A device for filtering a liquid, usually a tank in which solids settle to the bottom and are subsequently removed as sludge. A clarifier is largely used in the Wastewater Treatment Industry and Pulp and Paper Industry.
The effluent at the top of the clarifier, which contains little settable solids, trickles out of the clarifier at the weir location, generally a V shaped plate. Sometimes referred to as the effluent weir.
Class 1 Source.
As designated in the New Brunswick Regulation 97-133, Classes of Sources Section 25 (1) (a).
An apparatus for separating mixtures of solid materials according to size and density.
An apparatus for separating mixtures of materials according to size density. Also, with a means of removing the moisture from the materials.
Paper that is used in the publication of newspapers that contains a specific clay substance to enhance printing properties.
Clean Air Act.
An Act administered by the New Brunswick Department of Environment. It provides the Minister of Environment with the authority to protect, restore and enhance the environment primarily through the control of releases of contaminants into the atmosphere. In concert with the Clean Environment Act and the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act provides a comprehensive legislative framework for environmental protection.
Clean Environment Act.
An Act administered by the New Brunswick Department of Environment. It provides for the control, reduction and elimination of general environmental pollution and the designation of substances as contaminants. The Act also provides for the application of permits, licenses, approvals and registrations to release, store, transfer and otherwise manage contaminants, as well as the appeals against such permits, licenses, and approvals.
Clean Water Act.
An Act administered by the New Brunswick Department of Environment, which is intended to regulate, protect and enhance the waters of the Province. The Act and Regulations define the level of water quality to be achieved and maintained. They provide for the control, reduction or elimination of pollutants into or upon the water and the installation, replacement or alternation of any equipment or facilities designed for this purpose. They also provide for the application of permits, licenses, approvals and registrations to discharge substances into the waters or to carry out any work that may have an impact on the waters.
A mixture of combustible gases obtained by the gasification of coal. A process that produces a heavily contaminated waste stream with a high content of organic substances. By-products of this gas manufacture are coke, ammonia and many organic compounds.
A black, viscous liquid obtained by the gasification of coal. It is a major raw material for pharmaceuticals, dyes, solvents and other organic compounds. It contains several organic compounds, as do many of the by-products from the manufacture of heating coals or oils.
The steam produced from the operation of a co-generation plant which simultaneously produces electrical energy and process steam from the same plant.
A porous, brittle, solid fuel that contains about 80% carbon. It is either made in coke ovens from coal or obtained as a residue from the manufacture of coal gas.
With respect to effluent samples, means these samples must be collected once in each quarter of a year or every three months; usually in March, June, September, and December.
See Distillation Tower.
The oxidizing of the carbon content of a fuel source (fossil fuel) to carbon dioxide and water and producing a significant amount of heat which is generally used to produce hot water or steam. The steam produces energy in the form of heat or power. The oxygen used in the oxidising reaction is generally taken from air. There are a number of products from the combustion reaction that are classified as contaminants that are a result of combustion and these include but are not limited to particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and sulphur dioxide.
A term used in the Mining Industry and refers to the area where the ore or mined material is squeezed to release water from the material after it has been skimmed.
A substance whose molecules consist of unlike atoms and whose constituents cannot be separated by physical means. Also known as a chemical compound.
An ore that has been separated from its containing rock or earth by froth floatation or other methods of mineral separation.
A term used to describe the mass of a contaminant that occupies a unit volume of air or water. Generally, the units are presented in micrograms per cubic metre of air. There are concentration exposure limits established for most contaminants.
A term commonly used in the mining industry, and refers to a facility where mined materials are processed to separate the impurities associated with the mined material from the ground.
A device used in the Concentrator Complex as part of the separation process to concentrate the materials or ore. Main purposes of the dryers are to remove the moisture in the material.
Refers to the liquid that is formed from the condensation of a gas or vapour. Any gas or vapour stream can be condensed to form condensate by sufficiently lowering the temperature, increasing the pressure, or a combination of both.
An air pollution control device or a pretreatment device for a process stream. The device normally uses water or air to cool and condense a vapour stream.
Refers to parts that form the whole. For example, there are constituents of the exhaust gas from a Pulp Mill that are considered contaminants.
Constitution of the Air.
The structure, composition, physical makeup, and nature of the air.
An area that will contain an accidental upset or release of a contaminant until the proper response measures can be taken to remediate or rectify the upset conditions.
According to the New Brunswick Clean Air Act, contaminants are:
- any solid, liquid, gas, micro-organism, odour, heat, cold, sound, vibration, radiation or combination of any of them, present in the environment,
i. that is foreign to or in excess of the natural constituents of the environment,
ii. that affects the natural, physical, chemical or biological quality or constitution of the environment, or
iii. that endangers the health of human, plant or animal life or the safety or comfort of a human, that causes damage to property or plant or animal life or renders them unfit for use by persons or that interferes with visibility, the normal conduct of transport or business or the normal enjoyment of life or use or enjoyment of property,
- any pesticide or waste, or
- anything that is designated by the Minister as a contaminant under section 7 of the Clean Air Act.
Continuous Emission Monitors (CEM).
Specialised equipment in a stack or vent used to determine and report the levels of specific contaminants on a continuous basis. Stationary sources such as large fossil fuel fired heating or power plants, municipal waste incinerators, pulp mills and other industrial process plants generally use CEM to provide a timely and continuous record of air pollution control equipment performance and to determine compliance with emission standards.
Continuous Precoat Surface Renewal.
A term commonly used in the Pulp and Paper Industry, which refers to the continuous process that prepares the surface of the paper products prior to coating application. This process promotes good coating adhesion.
To be in violation or conflict with a regulation or law.
A situation in an experiment or test that is subject to all of the same conditions except for the variable being tested. It is used as a standard or comparison for evaluating experimental results to check that the outcome of the experiment is a reflection of the test conditions and not of some unknown factor.
See Air Pollution Control Device.
A term used in the Pulp and Paper Industry to refer to the liquid used in the digester to soften wood chips, therefore allowing wood fibres to be removed and used by dissolving the natural glue (lignin) in the wood. Such chemicals as sodium bisulphite, sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide, are the primary contents of the cooking liquor.
An open water recirculating device that uses fans or natural draft to draw or force ambient air through the device in order to cool warm water through direct or indirect contact with the cooler ambient air.
Water and associated materials that are used in an industrial process to remove heat from a process flow stream or unit operation. The water is not intended to come into contact with process materials, and is normally recirculated and periodically discharged to the environment directly, or indirectly through a treatment system.
Cooling Water Blowdown.
The minimal discharge of process water used to cool process streams or unit operations. The cooling water is generally in a closed cooling water system and the blowdown acts to remove any accumulated solids that could impede heat transfer efficiency of the cooling water. Also see Blowdown.
Corrugated Paper Machine.
A paper machine that has a synchronized series of mechanical devices for transforming a dilute suspension of cellulose fibres into a dry sheet of paper consisting of straight, parallel, alternate ridges and grooves referred to as corrugated paper.
Includes expenses, disbursements, losses, damages and charges.
A correlation that can be established by determining the empirical relationship that relates the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) to the concentration of Total Reduced Sulphur (TRS) in a Recovery Boiler under most operating conditions. Therefore, by monitoring CO and using the predetermined correlation for the specific operating conditions encountered, the TRS concentration can be determined.
Course Ore Storage Bin and Associated Vent.
A warehouse building used for the purpose of storing course graded ore, and its associated ventilation system which serves to release dust or fumes from within the building.
Court of Competent Jurisdiction.
Any court that has the authority to make awards.
Crack Crude Unit Bottoms.
Refers to the heavier hydrocarbons that cannot be thermally decomposed into less complex substances and collect at the bottom stage of the cracking unit.
A petroleum product manufactured by cracking crude oil into lighter hydrocarbon chains using distillation columns and other equipment under high pressure and temperature, with or without the presence of catalyst.
A term used largely in the Oil Refining sector which describes a process that uses high temperatures and sometimes catalysts to decompose complex substances (heavier hydrocarbons) into less complex substances (lighter hydrocarbons).
Cross- Flow Scrubber.
Refers to an air pollution control device that consists of a vessel that has an air waste stream entering typically from the side of the vessel and the liquid scrubbing medium entering from the bottom or the top of the vessel. The air waste stream comes into direct contact with the liquid, thereby transferring contaminants from air to a liquid.
Crude Distillation Towers.
See Distillation Towers.
An unrefined petroleum product.
A facility that typically consists of crushing units, sieve screens, and belt conveyors. The facility is used to crush large size materials that have been mined or quarried and to separate the crushed materials into distinct size ranges. Most mines, and rock quarries have crushing plants.
The pulp manufactured from the Thermomechanical Pulp process.
CTMP Pulp Mill.
Chemi-Thermomechanical Pulp Mill.
An air pollution control device operated by centrifugal, inertial, or gravitational separation, where air is spun around in a circle causing larger size particles to fly off and impact the walls of the cyclone and slide down into a hopper and separate from the circulating air stream. It is typically used for particulate matter control before release to the environment, or as a pre-conditioning stage of a process stream.