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New Brunswick's Clean Air Act - Glossary
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Safe Sampling Platform. A platform designed and set up at a facility to allow safe and easy access of the performance testing team at the specific performance testing location. Also see Performance Testing.
Sample Filters. Refers to filters that are used in a particulate matter sampling train used in performance testing. The filters collect the particulate matter in the air waste stream isokinetically. Generally, there is an 80 mm circular glass fibre filter that is housed in a filter assembly, which is housed and heated to above 120oC in a oven. These filters are to be retained by the performance testing team for a period of one year after the testing has been completed unless otherwise specified.
Sampling Ports. The access holes that have been cut into the sidewall of an exhaust vent or a smokestack. These holes are used to insert a sampling probe of the performance testing sampling train to collect samples of the air waste stream. Generally, there are two sampling ports located 90o to each other on the same horizontal plane. Also, the ports should be located eight diameters above a flow disturbance, and two diameters below the exit of the smokestack.
Saturator. A unit operation or equipment that contacts one material with another. One material becomes dissolved into the other. An example includes the absorption tower used in the sulphite pulp process where sulphur dioxide and a soluble base are dissolved in the cooking liquor to form an acid cooking liquor. The acid cooking liquor contains both free dissolved sulphur dioxide and bisulphite.
Screenings. Refers to the material that has passed through a specific size screen. A number of industries use screens to control the size of the material that is used in the process, including the particle board industry which only uses specific size wood particles to make board, and quarrying operations that make crushed stone of specific sizes for further processing.
Scrubber. A proven air pollution control device that uses a spray of water or reactant to trap or collect contaminants that are predominant in the air waste stream prior to being emitted to the atmosphere. A scrubber can be designed to remove solid, liquid or gas contaminants.
Semi-Continuous Feedback. When used with reference to fixed monitors means the feedback or return of part of the monitoring data on a periodic basis.
Semi-Mobile Sulphur Dioxide Monitors. When used with reference to mobile monitors means the mobility of the monitors is limited, not a wide range of movement or mobility.
Service. With respect to equipment containing ozone depleting substances, to adjust, inspect, maintain, modify, renovate, repair or test equipment or a component of equipment.
Settling Ponds. An outdoor holding area for waste water where heavier particles sink to the bottom (settle) for removal and disposal. The discharge of the water of a settling pond is then either recirculated into the process, or discharged to the environment.
Shaft Kiln. A kiln in which raw material is fed into the top, moves down through hot gases flowing up from burners on either side, and emerges as a product from the bottom. This type of kiln is used for drying purposes and to promote high temperature changes in chemical composition of some materials. The shaft kiln is used to promote the calcination of limestone. Also see Calcination of Limestone.
Shaping Machines. A machining process used primarily to shape products. These type of machines can be found in various products manufacturing sectors which include the fibreglass products manufacturing process and the glass manufacturing process.
Silica (SiO2). A mineral of silica composition (e.g. quartz) or the silicate mineral content of a rock, which is usually expressed chemically as the weight percentage of silica.
Silver Retorts. In the mining industry, the silver that is collected from the retorting process of a silver bearing mineral. Also see Retorting.
Sintering. A process by which fine metal particles are compressed into a coherent body of metal under heat, but at a temperature below the melting point of the metal.
Sintering Cooling Drum. Part of the sintering process that cools the compressed coherent body of metal.
SI Units. The international system of physical units. For example, the corresponding unit for the fundamental quantities of length, time, mass, and temperature are metre, second, kilogram and kelvin, respectively. SI units have been given official status and recommended for universal use by the General Conference on Weights and Measures.
Sludge. The solid, semi-solid, liquid or sewage generated after partial drying, from any of a number of air or water treatment processes. The sludge can be classified as a hazardous waste depending on the composition.
Sludge Analysis. An analysis undertaken to determine the composition of sludge based on the type of product manufactured. Generally, done in a laboratory.
Slurry. A watery mixture of insoluble matter resulting from some pollution control devices or generated for process stream modification.
Small Static Vent to Atmosphere. A vent through which an air waste stream is exhausted naturally, not through mechanical induced airflow.
Smoke Density Chart of the Province of New Brunswick. Set by the Minister to outline the specific emission limits for smoke. It is comprised of five levels of density, each varying by 20% opacity. Smoke must not have a density greater than density number 1. However, for a period of not more than 4 minutes per half hour, it can be greater than density number 1, but not more than density number 2.
SO2 Emissions. See Sulphur Dioxide.
Soda Ash. The commercial grade of sodium carbonate used in glass manufacture and petroleum refining, pulp and paper processing and for soaps and detergents.
Soda Lime Glass. Glass made by fusion of either sand with sodium carbonate, or sodium sulphate and lime, or limestone, used for window glass.
Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3). See Soda Ash.
Sodium Chloride (NaCl). One of the more abundant salts obtained either by surface or underground mining or by evaporation of brines or seawater. It is also called rock salt (large crystals) and table salt (ground and refined). Its' major commercial uses are in the manufacture of chlorine and sodium hydroxide by electrolytic separation and of sodium carbonate by the Solvay process.
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). A white, melting crystal. It is produced in electrolytic cells in the chlor alkali process, where an electric current is passed through a strong aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The highest volume alkaline material used by the industry, it serves as an analytical reagent and chemical intermediate in rubber reclaiming, petroleum refining, pulp and paper and in detergents. Available in both solid form and water solutions of various strengths, it is highly corrosive to skin and must be handled with care. Sometimes referred to as caustic soda.
Sodium Hydroxide Receiver. A facility that receives sodium hydroxide, which is manufactured largely from the Chlor-Alkali process, as a raw material for their process.
Sodium Hypochlorite (NaClO4). An air-unstable, pale-green crystal with a sweet aroma, which absorbs carbon dioxide and water from air. It is used as a bleaching agent for paper and pulp and textiles, as a chemical intermediate and in medicine, and a odour control chemical in the fish processing industry.
Sodium Sulphate (Na2SO4). A crystalline compound, which is soluble in water. It is used in tonnage quantities in the production of paper and glass, and has minor applications in the textile, leather and pharmaceutical fields.
Sodium Sulphide (Na2S). An irritating, water-soluble, yellow to red powder. It is used as a chemical intermediate, solvent, photographic reagent and analytical reagent.
Software CEMS. Refers to software that has the capability of determining emissions in the exhaust stack based on volumetric flow of flue gas.
Solvay Process. Is the process to make sodium carbonate and calcium chloride by treating sodium chloride with ammonia and carbon dioxide.
Solvent. A liquid substance or chemical capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances. It is often used to thin paints and glues, dry-clean fabrics, and extract oils and waxes from impure materials. These substances, often found in household and industrial products are mostly hazardous and toxic. They can also be flammable and explosive.
Source. Any stationary property, real or personal, taken as a whole that releases or may release any air contaminant.
Source Testing. Activities that are undertaken to determine the emission rate or concentration of air contaminants being emitted from a source stack or vent at an industrial operation. The testing is completed inside the stack or vent prior to being discharged.
Sour Gas. The hydrocarbon vapour stream generated by several of the process units, and which contains sulphur normally present in the form of hydrogen sulphide.
Sour Gas Sweet Gas Bypass Valve. A valve that is used to isolate the sour gas from the sweet gas in the oil refining industry. Sour gas is rich in hydrogen sulphide, and sweet gas is rich in methane or natural gas.
Sour Water Stripper. Process wastewater containing hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, and oil is termed sour water in the oil refining industry. The wastewater is stripped with steam to remove the hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, and light gases in the sour water stripper.
Spill Containment. A form of containment that will contain an accidental spill or discharge of a deleterious compound and prevent or reduce the release to the environment. In the dispensing of petroleum products a concrete apron is required in the dispensing area to act as the spill containment.
Skiphoist. A basket, bucket, or open car mounted vertically or on an incline on wheels, rails, or shafts and hoisted by a cable, used to raise materials.
Stack. A chimney, smokestack, flue, duct or vertical pipe that releases an air waste stream to the ambient air either naturally or by mechanically induced flow. The stack is generally where the performance testing is undertaken to measure the concentration or emission rate of air contaminants in the air waste stream.
Stack Gas Sampling. See Performance Testing.
Stack Gas Testing Report. A report presented by an approved facility to the New Brunswick Department of Environment that presents the calibrations, methodologies, calculations, and results of the Performance Testing activities.
Stack Sampling Campaign. See Performance Testing.
Standard Conditions. Refers to the basis to which determined contaminant concentration may be corrected. These conditions are a temperature of 21.0 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 101.3 kilopascals.
"Standard Reference Methods for Source Testing: Measurement of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Stationary Sources EPS 1-AP-77-3". A reference method document developed by the Environmental Protection Service of Environment Canada. The method outlines the procedures to follow while undertaking Nitrogen Oxide sampling at a stationary source. This document has since been replaced by EPS RM/1/15.
"Standard Reference Methods for Source Testing: Measurement of Emissions of Particulates from Stationary Sources EPS 1-AP-74-1". A reference method document developed by the Environmental Protection Service of Environment Canada. The method outlines the procedures to follow while undertaking particulate matter sampling at a stationary source. This document has since been replaced by EPS RM/1/8.
"Standard Reference Methods for Source Testing: Measurement of Emissions of Sulphur Dioxide from Stationary Sources EPS 1-AP-74-3". A reference method document developed by the Environmental Protection Service of Environment Canada. The method outlines the procedures to follow while undertaking Sulphur Dioxide sampling at a stationary source. This document has since been replaced by EPS RM/1/15.
Standards for Fuels. Refers to standards set in Approvals which stipulate limits on the concentration and emission rates of contaminants being released to the environment from source facilities that burn fossil fuels.
Steady State Conditions. A condition at which a process or unit operation reaches a steady mode of operation.
Steam Pipeline. Pipes joined to provide a conduit or underground channel through which steam flows.
Steam Stripping System. A system including the stripping tower and ancillary equipment, which uses steam to strip away volatile constituents of a liquid mixture. An example is the Sour Water Stripping System in which steam is used to strip the hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, and light gases from an oil refining wastewater. The steam used in this manner is known as open steam. Also, called steam distillation.
Stockpile Feed Equipment. Refers to equipment such as conveyors, screens, pneumatic piping, cyclones and loaders used to stockpile specific sized materials. These materials may include but are not limited to, aggregate, woodwaste for fuel, and shavings for use as a raw material.
Storage Bins. With respect to ore, means a specified set of buildings used to store the ore prior to further processing or until being shipped.
Storage Tank. In the context of petroleum products, is a closed container with a capacity greater than two hundred and thirty litres, used or intended to be used for containing a petroleum product and located in a stationary location that includes a temporary arrangement on cradles, skids or wheels.
Storage Tank System. A storage tank or tanks including valves, piping, pumps, dispensers and other components connected to the tank or tanks and includes any dike or diked area, drainage channels and drainage piping and a storage tank or tanks at a marina unless otherwise specifically dealt with.
Stripped Overhead Gas. Refers to gas removed from wood chips in the pulping process, prior to being mixed with the cooking liquor in the digester. Consists predominantly of air, noncondensible gases and some VOC.
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2). A pungent, colourless, gaseous pollutant formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. It results when sulphur burns in the presence of oxygen. It has a characteristic smell, like that of a struck match. Most people can detect its acidic taste in the air when levels reach between 0.3 and 1.0 ppm. Sulphur dioxide dissolves very rapidly in water, eventually forming sulphuric acid. Fine particles present in the air as a result of sulphur dioxide emissions can cause haze over large regions.
Sulphur Dioxide Absorption Tower. A tower like device used to absorb sulphur dioxide in an alkaline base solution to form a raw cooking acid for the pulping process. Typically found in the Sulphite Pulping process.
Sulphur Dioxide Episode Control Program. Is a program initiated by specific industrial agencies to control the emissions of sulphur dioxide to such a level to prevent or reduce episodes (significant levels) of sulphur dioxide emissions.
Sulphur Dioxide Laden Off Gas. Refers to an off gas that consists of significant amounts of sulphur dioxide.
Sulphur Dioxide Response Plan. A plan developed by industry or the Department of Environment. The plan outlines procedures to follow to prevent and reduce sulphur dioxide emissions.
Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4). A toxic, corrosive, strongly acidic, colourless liquid that dissolves most metals. It is used in industry in the manufacture of chemicals, fertilizers, explosives and in oil refining. It is also the product of SO2 and water in the atmosphere resulting in acidic deposition.
Sulphur Oxides. See Sulphur Dioxide.
Sulphur Plants. Plants used predominantly in the Oil Refining Industry to convert hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide emissions from the refining process to elemental sulphur. Also, called a Claus Plant.
Sulphur Trioxide (SO3). A toxic, irritating liquid, strong oxidizing agent and fire hazard. In the atmosphere, sulphur trioxide is formed by the oxidation of sulphur dioxide. Sulphur trioxide is very unstable and readily reacts with water vapor to form sulphuric acid, and contribute to the acid deposition rate.
Synthetic Gypsum. The gypsum that does not occur in commercial quantities in nature and is fabricated. Used in wallboard manufacturing.